Sports science definitions and cycle coaching and training terminology
There are 66 entries in this glossary.
- Adenosine triphosphate
The currency of energy. Its unstable nature as a molecule lends itself to liberation of potential energy and therefore fuelling work. Hydrolysis of ATP to ADP in the cell releases a great amount of energy.
In the presence of oxygen; aerobic metabolism utilizes oxygen
Literally, "without oxygen." Exercise that demands more oxygen than the heart and lungs can supply. Anaerobic contribution to energy turnover increases above the intensity of the lactate threshold.
- Anaerobic work capacity
Defined as the maximum amount of work that can be produced from anaerobic energy systems. Can be derived at the same time as the Critical Power from the power-time relationship.
The ability to sustain work supported to a significant extent by anaerobic metabolism. Could be thought of as tolerance of exercise around and above the maximal lactate steady state (i.e. upper limit of lactate production / clearance balance).
- Base Period
The period during which the basic abilities of endurance and efficiency are best developed. Often characterized by training of longer volume / lower intensity (below the lactate threshold).
- Build Period
The specific preparation mesocycle during which high-intensity training in the form of zone 3 and zone 4 are emphasized.
Revolutions or cycles per minute of the pedal stroke. Can also be used with running stride and swim stroke.
The smallest of the body's blood vessels. Capillaries are responsible for delivering oxygenated blood to individual cells, in particular they are vital to the delivery of oxygen to the working muscles during exercise.
- Critical Power (CP)
The power you can sustain theoretically indefinitely, but in practice, an intensity approximating an effort you could hold for 20 to 40 minutes. In a mathematical sense, it is the asymptote of the relationship between power output and time you can hold that power.
- Cross Training
Training for more than one sport during the same period of time.
The ability to maintain exercise and resist fatigue. Technically, the proportion of the maximal aerobic power that can be sustained.
- Ergogenic aids
Any external influences which can positively affect physical or mental performance and include mechanical aids, pharmacological aids, physiological aids, nutritional aids, and psychological aids.
The inability to hold a given power. Technically, an increasing state from the beginning of exercise.
- Fatigue index
The progressive and predictable decrease in power output as a sprint effort is made. Reported as the end power as a % of the peak power.